According to the National Center for Learning Disabilities, “Executive function is a set of mental processes that helps connect past experience with present action. People use it to perform activities such as planning, organizing, strategizing, paying attention to and remembering details, and managing time and space.” (National Center for Learning Disabilities, Dec 2010)
In a blog article written by Nicole Eredics from The Inclusive Class, there are 25 ways for parents and teachers to help improve students’ executive functioning. In italics, I have written a response to each idea to describe what I do in the classroom. I hope it is helpful for people to see what could happen in a general education setting. Please keep in mind middle school and high school might be slightly different. I will comment on those settings at the end of the list.
The list is as follows:
1. Have students take homework and planners out of their backpack and place it ON their desks at the beginning of the day (homework should never see the inside of a desk!).
As a teacher, I agree with this. I have had more students shove homework in their desk and forget about it. Then when it comes time to dismiss it is not in their backpack. They can’t find it. They come the next day unprepared. I have a little saying in my class, “If you put it where it is supposed to be, it will always be there.” After once or twice, most of my students are able to organize themselves much better. When the homework is passed out, most of the students will place it in a folder in their backpacks.
2. Teacher makes time to check-in with each child to see if homework is completed and parent signs planner.
I have a daily note, I require parents to sign each day. This is something I need to reinforce. However, it is sticky because I ask the students but it is the parents that also must remember. It is late in the year this year but I will work on this for the 2012-2013 year.
3. All homework is put into a “Hand-In” bin.
I don’t’ have a hand in bin but I do call 5 children at a time to check their homework. The homework is very easy to spot check.
4. A Daily Schedule is posted in the class and the teacher reviews the plan for the day.
I need to make room for this on my whiteboard. I think this will help many of my students who have anxiety as to what comes next.
5. Older students keep materials such as pencils, erasers and markers in a pencil box inside their desk. In younger classrooms, pencils are kept in containers, which are passed around or kept at group tables.
I have a system in my class for pencils. Each child has a pencil box. Inside the pencil box, the student has a scissors, crayons, and a pencil. If the pencil breaks, I have a trade system. The student must put the dull pencil in the dull basket and take a sharp pencil. The rule is “you must give one to get one.”
6. The tops of desks should be kept clear. If it can’t fit into the desk, find a shelf in the classroom to house large items.
I agree that the tops of the desks should be free of clutter. I used to place the alphabet strips and name plates on the desk. This just seemed to distract the student. Now, I have nothing on their desks.
7. All work is kept in a color-coded folder according to subject. The folders are kept in separate bins on a shelf in the classroom. I.e. a blue folder is for Math
I don’t have this system. I like the idea. I have binders for Language Arts. The students must keep it organized. It contains a few sections that align with our Language Arts program. I don’t have a system for Math. I love the idea of the colored folders. I think I will implement this for next year.
8. Lessons are kept in age-appropriate chunks of time and students are cued when a transition is about to take place. I.e. “You have 10 more minutes until Math begins.”
I am constantly informing students when the next transition will be happening. This is very important for all students. I also use a timer as well. This keeps me in check too.
9. Countdown students before instruction is about to begin. For example, “You have to the count of 5 to stop, look and listen.”
I like this. I don’t do this countdown to instruction. I will add this to my bag of tricks for next year.
10. Give instructions in short, simple steps.
Short and simple steps are crucial. I write the steps on the board too. This way if the student forgets the steps, the student is able to help him or herself in order to finish the activity.
11. At the end of each lesson, have student’s hand-in unfinished work, as well as finished work. Again, paper should not go into the desk!
In my class, the finished work is placed in my finished workbasket. However, there is paper in the desk because I can’t stand the up, down and walking around. It creates too much chaos. So, I have an “Unfinished work folder” They keep this in their desk. We clean it out every so often.
12. Create a checklist of daily activities for students to keep at their desk and check off when items are completed.
I like this idea. I have a checklist. I have to make it more visible. I should move it to the front of the room. This might help many of the students who wonder, “What should I do? Oh, I’ll just sit here and wait for my teacher to tell me.”
13. Organize class into groups. Give instruction regarding movement and change according to groups. For example, “Can the Blue Group please line-up at the door?”
I do use groupings. It eliminates the students running like a herd of buffalo toward the door, paper bin, etc.…it is for safety purposes.
14. Make a seating arrangement when students are sitting at the carpet. Learning takes place here as well as at desks, so give this area just as much thought.
We only sit at the carpet when we venture out to the library. I make the students sit in a colored box. Their body must stay inside the box, and sit “Criss-cross apple sauce”.
15. Consider having the students turn the desks around (so that the opening of the desk is facing the front of the classroom) to prevent loose papers from being placed inside.
I like this idea. However, it makes it hard when you have double desks. I think it is helpful for those students who fidget inside their desk and are focused on the items in the desk instead of listening to the instruction.
16. Model the activity or behavior you expect from children and then have them practice it. Repeat if necessary.
This is crucial. If you don’t model the activity, students have a difficult time visualizing what the final product will be. The student can read the directions but demonstrating really helps cement the process of the activity in the students’ brain.
17. Create a Homework Board. At the end of the day, set aside time to review the homework for the day. Then have all students copy homework into their planners. Accommodations can be made if the student has trouble writing from the board, (ie. the student can take photo of homework board with a digital camera, a buddy can write out homework etc.).
I review the homework on Mondays. I think I need to add this for next year. I will write the homework on the board and review it before dismissing students. Even though I have the homework sheet posted on my web page, this might be more helpful to students who are more forgetful.
18. Guide students as they gather their homework, planner and materials to take home.
I need to work on this too. At the end of the day, I am always running late. I need to take five minutes and make sure children have their reader, homework, and parent notes.
19. Have students place their homework and materials immediately into their backpacks.
Even though this year most I my students place their homework in the backpack, I will begin my class next year training the students how to be organized about placing the homework in the backpack.
20. Some students may benefit from having an extra copy of textbooks to keep home.
My students don’t need an extra copy of the textbook. The only time a student is able to have an extra copy of the text is if the parents of the student have this written into an IEP. The general education class has the students bring the textbooks to the home and back to school the following day.
As for my son, who is in middle school, we have this extra copy of textbook written into the IEP. The reason for this is the heaviness of the books, and the anxiety of remembering to bring them home each day and then return the book the following day is stressful for my son.
21. Use the school website to post assignments, announcements and communicate with parents, as well as paper documents.
I think this is crucial. I have my homework posted each week. It is easy to keep up. In addition, I have links to great websites that might help my students.
22. When the child arrives home, unpack the backpack right away!
Parents need to do this more often. They need to go through their child’s backpack. They need to look at their child’s work and look for any school information. More often than not, parents don’t take the time to unpack the backpack.
As for my son, even though he is in middle school, we still take the time to go through the backpack. I am able to see where he still needs help placing papers in a folder or binder. This allows my son and I to have a conversation about papers floating in the backpack.
23. Help the child lay out homework and materials in a quiet workspace, where an adult can check-in and oversee progress.
I think this is important for parents to remember. The television and radio must be off. If you really want to listen to music, have the music be classical and on a soft volume. Many times, I hear too many stories from my students about the television being too loud and the student had a difficult time focusing. Parents need to be mindful of this situation.
24. Check to see if all homework is completed and then sign the homework planner to indicate that the homework is done.
Most parents in Elementary check their child’s homework. However, I do have some parents who don’t check the homework and the homework comes back to class incorrect because the student needed some clarification of directions.
I did check my son’s homework in elementary school and for the first two years in middle school. Now, I don’t need to check as much. I spot check for neatness and grammar issues. In addition, he has a tutor due to the fact that he is in honors classes and most of the concepts he is learning is over my head.
25. Have child pack all homework and materials into his/her backpack as soon as everything has been completed and leave it by the door for the next day!
I think this is very important to teach organization skills. It is important because the child is able to fully rest knowing that in the morning everything is all ready to go. The student doesn’t need to run around looking for all their homework or books because they took care of everything the night before.
We do this with Nolan. He has improved tremendously in his organization because of having his backpack ready the night before. He wakes up rested and relaxed. He has breakfast, gets ready for school, and is out the door. He is not frantic or having a panic attack. Every now and then, he forgets something, but it is not such an ordeal anymore.
Here is the link to the full article.